SmartMobs (The next social revolution)
[Technologies of Co-operation]
Mark Smith so defines the social network capital: social network capital is when people put a little of what they know and how they feel into the online network and draw out larger amounts of knowledge and opportunities for sociabilities than they put in.
Rheingold tries to define how collective actions may be influenced so he argued that competition is one of the possible dynamics in group and more so one of the major propeller of the human dynamics. Citing Tomas Hobbes (1660), he argued that humans are so competitive and the only way we can cooperage is for a more powerful competitor to impose a truce. Hobbes called this coercive authority Leviathan. Another approach to the problem is that there is collaboration till the numbers of people in the group is small (olson, 1982). In another theory Elinor Ostrom, in 1990, argued that external authorities are necessary to govern the common pool resources (CPRs). Ostrom found that group that are able to organise and govern themselves are marked by the following principles:
1. group boundaries are clearly defined
2. rules governing the use of collective goods are well matched to local needs and conditions
3. most individuals affected by these rules can participate in modifying the rules
4. the rights of community members to devise their own rules is respected by external authorities
5. community members monitor user’s behaviour (punishing rule breakers and verifying that people are doing their part)
6. a graduated system of sanctions are used
7. community members have access to low cost conflict resolution
8. for cpr that are part of larger systems, appropriation, provision, … are organised by nested layers
Charlotte Hess pointed out the significance of a cross-disciplinary convergence < paper >.
Smith: reputation and peer-to-peer social pressure pay a key role in maintaining CPRs.
Rheingold continues citing other theories about human group. Kropotkin wrote, for example, Mutual aid: A Factor of Evolution, where he stated his theory: A centralised government, he insisted, is not needed to set an example or to make people do the right thing. On the opposite direction Richard Dawkins wrote a book: The Selfish Gene, where he stated that we are survival machines , blindly programmed to preserve the genes.
Game theory is based on several assumption:
1. the players are in conflict
2. they must take action
3. the results of the actions will determine which player wins according to definite rules
4. all players are expected to always act rationally by choosing the strategy that will maximise their gain regardless of the consequences of others.