D. M. Mark, C. Freksa, S. T. Hirtle, R. Lloyd, and B. Tversky. Cognitive models of geographical space. International Journal of Geographical Infromation Science, 13(8):747–774, 1999.
This article present an extrememly detailed review of the literature on geographical cognition over the last decades. Particularly it presents a compendium of artificial intelligence in geographical contexts. One interesting link is the CITYTOUR project (André et al, 1987), designed to answer natural language questions about the spatial relationship between objects in a city.
The paper also describe recent trends in the study of the acquisition of spatial knowledge. Particularly, the authors refer to Hutchins (1995), talking about adaptive reorganizations: “the environment provides a context for learning with constant feedback and adjustment. Learning, is the adaptive reorganization oin a complex system, which includes the environment and communication among actors in thet environment.