J. Funke. The cognitive psychology of knowledge: The German Wissenspsychologie project., chapter Microworlds based on linear equation systems: A new approach to complex problem solving and experimental results, pages 313–330. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993. [url]
This article describe the DYNAMIS approach for computer-simulated scenarios. The author describe the cognitive problems of users dealing with simulations:
1. the complexity of the situation;
2. the connectivity of the variables involved;
3. the intrasparency of the situations;
4. the dinamic development of the variables:
5. the presence of multiple goals.
The author also propose some principle that can help when dealing with such systems:
1. it should be always possible to define the quality of a solution by comparing it with an optimal solution strategy;
2. the situation should realise the features of complex problems as described above.
The paper also offer a good view of an experimental setup for dealing with simulations.